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印媒:中国公司是如何在印度后院打败印度的

In just 10 years, China has built world-class MNCs that have graduated from making cheap copycats of western products to competing with world's biggest MNCs. And now India is in their cross hairs. Indian companies have a reason to be afraid because they are not going to match the Chinese manufacturers who ride on aggressive pricing, state subsidy, protectionist policies and cheap finance.

Take smartphone-maker Xiaomi. Once considered a cheap copycat, it is now emerging as a leader in India. It plans to diversify into high-margin products such as electric vehicles and fast-track segments such as payment banking. Recently, it made a regulatory filing in India, stating its future game plan.

Given its runaway success in smartphones in a very short period, it can dominate auto and consumer goods segments in coming years.

Xiaomi's regulatory filing exhibits its ambition and the threat it poses to Indian manufacturers. From electric and other vehicles small and big, it also plans to sell laptops, gaming consoles, computer accessories, lifestyle products, network equipment, clothes, toys, backpacks and suitcases, and bath and kitchen products.

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Chinese goods have already dominated the Indian market as every home is teeming with Chinese products. While Indian manufacturing is still struggling to take off, China has grown into a manufacturing powerhouse in less than a decade.

To be sure, there are going to be not one but many Xiaomi's.

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The Communist regime has taken a range of policy measures to create, protect and nurture Chinese companies. Alibaba, Baidu, Tencent, WeChat and Xiaomi are examples of Chinese companies growing from zero to billions of dollars within a few years. On the contrary, Indian startup sector has yet to show similar scale and success.

Indian automakers cannot take Xiaomi's plans lightly. Chinese carmaker Geely, which initially made Rolls-Royce copycat Geely GE, did begin small but is now a big player. It bought Volvo's passenger car business in 2010, and competes with Audi, BMW and Mercedes. Xiaomi could be another Geely.

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Chinese companies have already captured India's telecom sector. They control 51% of India's $8 billion plus smartphone market with brands such as Xiaomi, Oppo, Vivo and OnePlus. India imports telecom gear worth over Rs 70,000 crore annually, much of it from Chinese firms like Huawei and ZTE.

China is India's largest trading partner, with bilateral trade at $71.5 billion, but it is heavily skewed in favour of China. India imports $61.3 billion worth of Chinese products while it exports just $10.2 billion worth of goods to China.

From -$37.2 billion in 2011-12, trade deficit has widened in the last six years to -$51.1 billion

Not just that, there is a qualitative skew too. Chinese exports value-added products like mobile phones, plastics, electrical goods, machinery and parts to India while India exports primarily raw materials to China.

Low wages, subsidies, institutional reforms, foreign investment and a favourable demographic have no doubt fuelled the Chinese growth in the past decade, but the recent explosion of Chinese MNCs can be best explained by its crazy internet boom that has pulled a big majority of its people into formal economy.

In his 2015 book 'China's Disruptors' Edward Tse coined an acronym to identify factors that triggered the entrepreneurial explosion— SOOT, which stands for scale, openness, official support and technology. These factors can be best seen operating together in China's growing digital economy marked by huge people participation, transparency, supportive government policies and, well, technology.

India seems to be ages away from these enabling conditions for growth of entrepreneurs. All this indicates that Chinese MNCs will become a major threat to Indian companies in a few years.

以下是环球网的编译:

仅在10年内,中国就已打造出众多世界级跨国公司,这些从“山寨”西方产品起家的中国企业正与国际巨头竞争。如今印度正处于这些中国跨国公司十字瞄准线中。印企有理由为此担心,因为它们不是中国制造商的对手。

不妨以智能手机制造商小米为例。如今,这家曾被视为廉价“抄袭猫”的中企已经成为印度市场的领军者。在印度,该公司还计划向电动汽车等高利润产品以及在线支付等多领域进军。小米向印度监管部门提交的报告已显示其雄心和对印度制造商的威胁。该公司计划销售笔记本电脑、游戏机、电脑配件、生活用品、网络设备、服装、玩具、背包、手提箱以及卫浴和厨房用品等。这显示如今的中国企业具备同时在多个领域取得成功的能力。

随着每个印度家庭充斥中国产品,中国商品已主导印度市场。就在印度制造业仍在挣扎起步之际,中国已在不到10年内壮大为制造业大国。更可怕的是,中国并非只有一家小米公司,而是将出现大量“小米”。这个共产主义国家采取的一系列政策措施已创造、保护并培育出许多中国跨国企业。相反,印度的初创企业仍未表现出类似的规模和成功。如今,中企还俘获印度电信市场,小米、oppo、vivo和一加等四个中国品牌已占据印80亿美元智能手机市场的51%。印度每年进口价值超过7000亿卢比(约108亿美元)通信设备,其中许多来自华为和中兴等中企。

中国是印度最大贸易伙伴,双边贸易额达到715亿美元,但这严重向中国倾斜。最近6年来,印度对华贸易赤字已从2011至2012年度的372亿美元增至511亿美元。不仅如此,其间还存在“质的”失衡。中国向印度出口的是手机、电器产品、机械及配件等高附加值产品,而印度主要向中国出口原材料。就近年来中国跨国公司数量激增现象而言,最佳的解释是中国迅猛增长的互联网已将其大部分人口融入正式经济。

谢祖墀在其著作《创业家精神》中提出一个激发创业爆炸式增长的首字母缩写词“SOOT”——分别代表规模、开放、官方支持和技术。这些因素都在中国与日俱增的数字经济的明显特征中一览无遗并相互作用:庞大人口的参与、透明、政服支持政策和技术。印度似乎仍与这些激励企业家成长的条件相距多个时代。(王会聪译)

印度网友评论:

Kiran Chimirala
417
417 Points
This is the impact of Modi''s visit to China

这是莫迪访华后的效应

 

Sushil Jain
77
77 Points
very true

说得太对了

 

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