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quora: 中国朝鲜族更亲近韩国还是中国?

Do Chinese Koreans (Chaoxianzu/Joseonjok) feel closer to Korea or China?

中国朝鲜族更亲近韩国还是中国?

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【美版知乎quora问答】

Kang-Lin Cheng, I'm just some guy
Answered Sep 9
Last time I was in China, my dad introduced me to several Korean-Chinese friends he had. Their views were generally this: culturally speaking, they identify as Koreans. However, from a nationality point of view, they see themselves as Chinese. They are proud of their Korean heritage (especially food, lol), but they have no interest in North or South Korea (as in the country). In fact, some of them even badmouth South Korea for not treating Korean Chinese immigrants well.

译文来源:Quora中文网 http://quora123.com/635.html

上次在中国时,我爸把我介绍给一些他认识的中国朝鲜族朋友,他们的观点通常是这样的:文化上讲,他们认为自己是朝鲜人;但从国籍来看,他们认为自己是中国人。他们为自己的朝鲜血统感到骄傲(特别是美食哈哈),他们对韩朝两国没兴趣(和他们国内一样)。一些人甚至因为韩国没善待中国朝鲜族移民而苛责韩国。

One Chaoxianzu lady did tell me, though, that when China was very poor (Cultural Revolution, Great Leap Forward eras), many Korean Chinese disliked Han Chinese and wanted nothing to do with them. However, no matter how bad ethnic tensions were, no one ever thought of rejoining Korea or demanding independence

一位朝鲜族女士告诉我,中国很穷时,尽管很多朝鲜族人不喜欢中国汉族,不想和他们一起做事。但不管民族关系多恶劣,他们都没想要回归朝鲜,也没想要求独立

 

Hyunwoo Kim, politics and ethics DPhil(PhD) at Oxford University
Updated Dec 6
I’m Chinese Korean and Choi Wonseok’s answer is really a curiosity for me. In terms of the nationality, yes, most of the Chinese Koreans, including myself, recognise the fact that we hold the PRC passport, and therefore we’re Chinese the same way Korean Americans are, in terms of the nationality, Americans.
The views of Chinese Koreans, however, differ largely in terms of their historical, cultural, and even political, identities. For instance, many think that we’re Korean in terms of our cultural roots while some claim that Chinese Korean culture has been so embedded in the Chinese context over the decades that we’re a branch of Chinese cultural diversity. Political identity should be seen different from a legal status. While we hold the PRC passport and are legally seen as Chinese nationalities, our attitudes towards Korea and two Koreas vary a lot depending on each individual’s own experience.

我是中国朝鲜族。就国籍而言,大多数中国朝鲜族,包括我在内,承认自己是中国人;正如美国朝鲜族,就国籍而言,他们是美国人。

中国朝鲜族的观点,很大程度上与他们的历史、文化甚至政治、身份不同。例如,从文化根源上讲,很多人认为自己是朝鲜人,而不少人称,几十年来,中国朝鲜族文化融合了不少中国文化,即我们是中华文化多样性的一个分支。政治认同应与法律地位不同。尽管我们持有中国护照,被视为合法中国人,但我们对朝鲜和韩国的态度取决于每个人各自的经历。

It’s true that many Chosunzok in South Korea refer to themselves as Chinese, but this is not due to their quite mysterious intimacy with China that comes from nowhere, but largely because of the fact that the South Koreans have never ceased to treat them with prejudice and discrimination, which pushes them off towards the Chinese side. One of the examples is shown in Choi Wonseok’s answer, which refers to the high crime rates of Chinese Koreans as justifying the stereotypes held by the South Koreans. The fact, however, is that Chosunzok only comes six or seventh in terms of overall crime rates and the crime rate per capita is significantly lower than Mongolians and Americans given the latter’s tiny population in South Korea. Here is a link that shows the prejudice. http://m.skyedaily.com/news_view.... Some old generation Chosunzok identify themselves as Chosunsaram, the people of the Korean peninsula, and not as belonging into either the North or South.

事实上,很多在韩国的朝鲜族人称自己为中国人,但这不是因为他们对中国有隐秘的亲切感,而主要是因为韩国从未停止以偏见和歧视对待他们,这让他们更偏向中国。一个可见的例子如Choi Wonseok的回答,提到中国朝鲜族的犯罪率,便是韩国持有的成见。朝鲜族在总体犯罪率排第六或第七,而且人均犯罪率明显低于蒙古人和美国人,后者在韩国的人口很少。老一辈朝鲜族人认为自己是朝鲜半岛人,而不是朝鲜或韩国这两国。

It should be recognised that many Chosunzok came to South Korea mainly looking for job opportunities to improve their lives. Ethnic minorities overall live in the periphery of China and are not well cared for by the central government. Many Chinese Koreans choose to come to South Korea where people are well-paid and send the money back to their family members in China. Most of the Chinese Koreans that you encounter in South Korea are economic migrants looking for a decent life. They often lack proper education and work very hard in manual labour industries that South Koreans see as dirty and better avoided. It’s no wonder that South Koreans tend to think that Chosunzok, as Choi Wonseok puts it, have “a large hand in providing this image of China as ‘rough’ or ‘uncultured’”. To the South Koreans Chosunzok appear to be ‘rough and uneducated’ because only the rough and uneducated choose to go to South Korea.

应该认识到,很多朝鲜族人去韩国主要是为了找工作改善自己的生活。 主要生活在中国外缘,并没有得到中央政府的多少照顾。很多中国朝鲜族人选择前往工资高的韩国,将钱寄给在中国的家人。很多你在韩国遇到的中国朝鲜族人都是为了过上好生活的经济移民者。他们往往缺少教育,从事体力行业,韩国人将这些工作视为肮脏的、唯恐避之不及的。正如Choi Wonseok指出的那样,所以韩国人认为朝鲜族人,“给人留下了中国人没教养、粗鲁的印象”。对韩国人而言,朝鲜族人看起来就是“粗鲁、没受过教育的”,因为只有粗鲁和没受过教育的人才去韩国。

What is less well-known is the fact that educated Chinese Koreans, which are no small proportion, proceed to do well in top universities in China, succeed in getting well-paid jobs in big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai and prosper in Chinese society. They have no reason to abandon all they achieved in China and adapt themselves to a new society where discrimination is rampant. Some of them, including myself, choose Japan, America or Europe for better education. Only those less competent go to South Korea for higher education because they can neither survive the Chinese educational system nor make their way forward to countries where the quality of higher education is better than in South Korea. In fact, the Chinese Koreans have the highest per capita rate of having college education amongst Chinese ethnic groups including the Han Chinese, and Chosunzok are reputed in China for great educational records.

鲜有人知的事实是,不少受过教育的中国朝鲜族人,在中国顶尖大学出色地完成了学业,成功地在中国大城市如北京、上海等获得高薪工作,在中国社会获得成功。他们没理由放弃他们在中国取得的一切,让自己去适应一个歧视盛行的新社会。他们中的一些人,包括我,选择了日本、欧美接受更好的教育。只有少数能力较弱者选择去韩国接受高等教育,他们既不能在中国教育体系中生存,也无法向那些教育质量高于韩国的国家前进。实际上,中国朝鲜族人在中国 包括汉族在内,人均大学教育水平是最高的。教育水平高,朝鲜族在中国被赞誉。

It should also be noted that other answers that just treat Chosunzok as Chinese are too simplistic. Some may have strong feelings of ties with China but many just do not. For most Chinese Koreans, the Chinese nationality is just a legal status and Korea is an ambiguous entity that often makes nostalgic appeals to historical and cultural heritage. Most of us are just too busy to think about grand historical or nationalistic rhetorics—we’re just common people busy making life better for our family and ourselves.

要指出的是,其他只将朝鲜族人视为中国人的答案太过简单了。一些人可能对中国抱着强烈的感情,但很多人不这么想。对大多数中国朝鲜族而言,中国国籍只是一种法律地位,朝鲜则是模糊的实体,会勾起对历史、文化遗产的怀旧情结。我们大多数人太忙了,无暇顾及宏大的历史或民族主义的言辞——我们只是普通人,为了我们家人和自己创造更好的生活。

 

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