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黎明报:1915年印度从英国独立出来的反抗计划以失败告终,却引发了一场革命

The 1915 Ghadar plan to free India from the British was a failure — but it sparked a revolution

虽然1915年将印度从英国手中独立出来的反抗计划最终以失败告终,但是却引发了一场革命

A special tribunal was set up to hear what eventually came to be known as the First Lahore Conspiracy Trial. Under it, multiple cases were heard, the first batch of which began on April 26, 1915.

英国成立了特别法庭来审理最终被称为拉合尔谋反的首次审判。法庭审理了许多案件,1915年4月26日开始审理第一批案件。

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The judgement was read on September 13 — 24 of the accused were sentenced to death and 27 to transportation for life, while the others received varying sentences.

9月13日宣读判决,其中24名被告被判处死刑,27人被判终身监禁,其余的人则被判处不同的刑期。

One of those sentenced to death was 19-year-old Kartar Singh Sarabha, who had returned to Punjab from San Francisco to take up arms against the colonial state. During his trial, he spoke eloquently and passionately about the injustices committed by the colonial state.

其中一名被判处死刑的人是19岁的卡他信萨拉巴哈,他从旧金山返回旁遮普,拿起武器反抗殖民国家。在审判期间,他激昂、热情地讲述了殖民国家的不公正行为。

Sarabha had been associated with the revolutionary Ghadar magazine in San Francisco since it was founded in October, 1913. The magazine was published in several languages and distributed to Indian expatriates all over the world.

自旧金山的革命反抗杂志于1913年10月创刊以来,萨拉巴哈就一直与该杂志关系密切。该杂志以多种语言出版,分发给全世界的印度侨民。

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With the onset of the First World War in 1914 and the decision of the committee responsible for the magazine’s publication to wage war against the British state in India, Sarabha headed home along with thousands of others, convinced that their heroism would inspire the local population to rise against their colonial rulers.

随着1914年第一次世界大战的爆发以及负责杂志发行的委员会决定对英国殖民印度发动抗议战争,萨拉巴哈和其他成千上万的印度人返回印度,相信他们的英雄主义会激发印度人民站起来一起反抗英国殖民统治者。

They could not have been more wrong.

但他们大错特错。

The majority of the revolutionaries were originally from Punjab, having been inspired by the Ghadar magazine. But on their return, they found Punjab firmly within the embrace of the colonial empire.

大多数受到反抗杂志启迪的革命者都来自旁遮普。但当他们回国后却发现旁遮普邦坚定地信奉殖民帝国。

Most of the villagers had benefited from the agricultural policies of the state while the recruits to the army were pro-empire.

大多数村民都受益于大英帝国的农业政策,军队的新兵也支持大英帝国。

Thus, upon landing in the various cities of British India, many of the revolutionaries were betrayed by their fellow villagers and arrested. Those who escaped were forced to go underground.

因此,当革命者抵达英属印度的各个城市时,许多革命者被村民出卖、逮捕。那些幸运逃脱的人被迫转入地下活动。

No plan, no leader

没有计划,没有领袖

There was also never a particular plan of action or a central revolutionary party organising the movement. It was entirely centred on a magazine published in San Francisco.

没有特别的行动纲领,也没有中央革命党组织这场运动,完全依赖于旧金山的一本杂志。

While the articles that appeared in the magazine were high on rhetoric and passion, it never offered any concrete plan of action for the imminent revolution.

虽然杂志上刊登的文章都充满革命激情,但从来没有为即将到来的革命提供任何具体的行动计划。

The situation,changed drastically after the First World War broke. With multiple powerful forces joining hands against the British, it was felt the opportunity was ripe for an armed revolt against the colonial state.

第一次世界大战爆发后,局势发生了巨大的变化。许多强大势力联合起来反抗英国,因此,他们认为对殖民国家进行武装反抗的时机已经成熟。

但是,对于他们回家后要做什么,还没有明确的计划。人们认为,个人的勇敢行为将激励整个国家奋起反抗殖民国家。

Indian migrants all over the world were exhorted to return to the motherland to free her from the shackles of slavery. Thousands responded to the call, embarking on boats from various ports of the world.

遍布全世界的印度移民都被劝说返回祖国,把祖国从奴役的桎梏中解放出来。成千上万人响应号召,乘船从世界各地的港口出发。

But there was no clear plan as to what was to be done when they reached home. It was imagined that individual acts of bravery would inspire the entire country to rise against the colonial state.

但是,他们回家后要做什么,没有一个明确的计划。人们以为,个人的勇敢行为将激励整个国家奋起反抗殖民国家。

The conspiracy trials

谋反审判

Those who managed to avoid arrest returned to their home towns and villages, forming little groups, each one working on its own, independently. Many of these groups began reaching out to Indians within the army.

那些逃避逮捕的人回到了家乡、村庄,组建革命小组,每个小组各自独立行动。这些组织开始与军队中的印度人接触。

A semblance of a central leadership was given to the movement in January, 1915 when Rash Behari Bose was convinced to take up the mantle.

1915年1月,当拉什贝哈里·博斯被说服接管该革命运动时,这个组织开始有了中央领导。

The British, however, had already learned of this plan and before the date, many of these army units were either moved or disarmed, while several leaders of the movement were arrested.

然而,英国人已经提前知晓了这个革命计划,在行动爆发前,许多军队被转移、缴械,一些革命领袖被逮捕。

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