三泰虎

美媒: 印度成为特朗普无休止贸易战的最新战场

India Is the Latest Front in Trump’s Endless Trade War

印度成为特朗普无休止贸易战的最新战场

U.S. President Donald Trump has been starting trade wars on all fronts, with escalating spirals of tariffs between the United States and its three main trade partners: the European Union, China, and NAFTA. But there’s a smaller yet no less significant part of the protectionist tit for tat that’s been overlooked: the fight between the United States and India.

美国总统唐纳德•特朗普全面发动贸易战,美国与其三个主要贸易伙伴——欧盟、中国和北美自由贸易协定——之间的关税螺旋式交替上升。但是贸易保护战中还有一个规模虽小但同样重要的部分被忽视了:那就是美国和印度之间的贸易战。

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This quarrel has the potential to erode the burgeoning strategic partnership between the world’s two largest democracies, which have been closely aligned in military and counterterrorism fields with the goal of stabilizing the Indo-Pacific region and countering the rise of China.

这场贸易纷争有可能削弱世界上两个最大的皿煮国家之间迅速发展的战略伙伴关系,两国为了稳定印度-太平洋地区局势,遏制中国的崛起在军事和反恐领域一直保持着紧密联系。

Trump struck the first blow with his steel and aluminum tariffs. India tried hard to get an exemption but failed. And so, on Thursday India began imposing what it deems proportionate payback worth $240 million on 29 American export items including almonds, chickpeas, and chocolates, with 28 tariffs taking immediate effect and a duty on shrimp rolling out on Aug. 4.

特朗普用钢铁和铝材关税打出了第一拳。印度试图获得豁免资格,但失败了。因此,印度周四开始对包括杏仁、鹰嘴豆和巧克力在内价值2.4亿美元的的29种美国出口商品征收关税,印度认为此举是对美国关税的恰当回应,其中有28项关税立即生效,并在8月4日开始对虾征收关税。

The U.S. side was pressing for trade reciprocity even before the Trumpist trade hawks swooped in. Since President Bill Clinton’s administration, the United States has filed six separate cases against India at the World Trade Organization. Despite these conflicts, the deepening of geopolitical cooperation rarely halted. But the unilateralist and rigid way the current U.S. administration is closing its market to imports while simultaneously demanding concessions for its exports has rattled India as much as it has the rest of the world.

在特朗普贸易鹰派突然介入之前,美国方面一直在敦促贸易互惠。自比尔•克林顿主政以来,美国在世界贸易组织已经向印度提起了六起诉讼。尽管存在这些冲突,但地缘政治合作的不断深入几乎没有停止。但是,美国现任政府在关闭进口市场的同时要求对方为美国出口做出让步的单边主义和僵化做法,让印度和其他国家一样感到不安。

India was already on the radar of the’ neomercantilists calling the shots in Washington, although not to the same glaringly visible extent as China, the EU, Canada, and Mexico. U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer has challenged India’s export subsidy policies as instruments “to sell their goods more cheaply to the detriment of American workers and manufacturers.” He initiated a case against India at the WTO in March, the first such complaint since 2013, and also threatened to revoke the non-reciprocal trade benefits India enjoys under the Generalized System of Preferences by virtue of being a developing nation.

尽管印度的影响力不如中国、欧盟、加拿大和墨西哥明显,印度已经成为了华盛顿“新重商主义者”的进攻目标。美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽质疑印度的出口补贴政策,称其“低价销售商品,损害美国工人和制造商的利益”。今年3月,他在世贸组织提起了针对印度的申诉,这是自2013年以来的首次此类申诉。他还威胁称,将取消印度作为发展中国家在普惠制度下享有的非互惠贸易利益。

The United States is India’s single largest trading partner, with the two-way flow totaling more than $100 billion or more a year, and total trade makes up 40 percent of India’s GDP. There is considerable worry that Trump’s trade war will jeopardize India’s economic boom, with GDP growing at 7.7 percent in the last quarter of 2017.

美国是印度最大的贸易伙伴,双边贸易额每年超过1000亿美元,贸易总额占印度GDP的40%。人们非常担心特朗普的贸易战会危及印度的经济繁荣,印度的GDP在2017年最后一个季度增长了7.7%。

Indian equities and stocks fell by over 1 percent as the shadow of Trump’s trade war descended, reflecting worries not just about the tariffs but about the reduction of U.S. foreign direct investment into India, and for the fate of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s signature “Make in India” manufacturing initiative. Modi’s push to transform India into a manufacturing superpower depends on the free flow of capital and the openness of global markets.

伴随着特朗普贸易战的阴影,印度股市下跌逾1%,不仅反映了大众对关税的担忧,也反映了大众对美国减少对印直接投资,以及印度总理纳伦德拉•莫迪提出的“印度制造”计划命运的担忧。莫迪推动印度转型为制造业超级大国的努力,依赖于资本的自由流动和全球市场的开放。

India feels unfairly singled out because its trade surplus with the United States, at just shy of $25 billion, is so small compared to China’s nearly $350 billion, or even to Japan’s $69 billion, Germany’s $65 billion, or Mexico’s $63 billion.

印度感到不公平,因为它对美国的贸易顺差仅为250亿美元,与中国的近3500亿美元,甚至与日本的690亿美元,德国的650亿美元,墨西哥的630亿美元相比都是微不足道的。

Unlike China, which is breathing down the neck of the United States in cutting-edge sectors, Indian industrialization is still relatively immature and not top of the line. Some strategists even contend that a full-blown U.S.-China trade war would benefit India, as friction between Washington and Beijing might redouble New Delhi’s value in Washington’s eyes as a less confrontational actor.

与中国在尖端领域紧紧跟随美国不同的是,印度的工业化相对还不够成熟,并不出众。一些策略师甚至主张,中美贸易战全面爆发后,印度将坐收渔利,因为华盛顿和北京之间的摩擦可能会使华盛顿更加重视新德里的价值,不再那么具有对抗性。

Yet, given the existential dread that informs how India views the rise of its giant neighbor China, Modi’s government has preferred to tone down the criticism of Trump’s trade harshness so as not to alienate the United States completely. India’s rhetorical reaction has been muted compared to other participants in the burgeoning trade war; even while filing suit against the United States at the WTO, India is still keen to work out its trade differences with the Americans through bilateral channels without spoiling strategic coordination.

考虑到印度对其邻国中国之崛起的忧虑,莫迪政府更倾向于淡化对特朗普强硬态度的批判,以避免与美国的关系完全疏远。与不断发酵的贸易战中的其他国家相比,印度在言辞上的回应较为低调;尽管印度在世贸组织对美国提起诉讼,但印度仍希望在不破坏战略关系的情况下,通过双边渠道解决与美国的贸易分歧。

But these softly-softly methods are unlikely to cut any ice with an administration locked into the zero-sum logic of Trumpian economics and barely cognizant of geopolitical nuances. Of course, the U.S.-India strategic partnership has other legs besides trade and investment. But if these economic pillars wilt under the stress of Trump’s populism, the quest for a long-term balance of power in Asia could be fatally set back.

但这些温和的方法不太可能对这个被特朗普经济学的零和博弈理论所束缚、几乎不了解地缘政治细微差别的美国政府产生任何影响。当然,美印战略伙伴关系——除了贸易和投资,还存在于其他领域。但如果这些经济支柱被特朗普民粹主义的重压下被压垮,那么在亚洲地区寻求长期力量平衡的努力可能会遭到致命的打击。

文章来自:http://foreignpolicy.com

美国雅虎读者的评论:

来源:http://jblasi.com/45363.html

wolf pfizer22 hours ago

Trump is making China great. India was our only ally in the region. It was to be our counterweight to China. Guess...no more.......

特朗普让中国变得伟大。印度是我们在该地区唯一的盟友。印度是我们对中国的制衡力量。我猜现在已经不是了。

 

CNMDyesterday

Trump makes America great again!

特朗普让美国再次伟大!

 

Oliveyesterday

India will be another trade Taliban for US. History will prove so. Very cautionary math is essential in such case. India now bets on China and Russia , there is a prevailing sense that India may join One belt one road initiative (OBOR) a Chinese one. India has a problem with next door neighbor Pakistan which hurdles its ambitions but its inevitable for India to settle regional disputes to pace its socioeconomic growth .

印度将是我们的另一个贸易塔利班。历史将会证明这一点。在这种情况下,非常谨慎的计算是必不可少的。印度现在把赌注押在了中国和俄罗斯身上,人们普遍认为,印度可能会加入中国的一带一路计划。印度与邻国巴基斯坦不太融洽,这阻碍了印度的抱负,但印度不可避免地要解决地区争端,以加快其社会经济增长。

 

raziyesterday

Mr.Modi,your bear hugs have gone in vain.The honeymoon is over.

莫迪先生,你的熊抱看来一点用都没有。蜜月结束了。

 

Lesyesterday

Gee what kind of tariffs does India have on the US Yahoo ?

印度对美国雅虎征收什么关税?

 

Tomyesterday

After hitting Turkey , a strategic NATO ally , now it is India , the biggest democracy in the world . Something must be wrong with the present tariff imposition policy of President Trump . The surplus-deficit figures do not tell all since America is still the overwhelmingly No. 1 economic power in the world. On a per capita basis , the average Americans are earning 4 times more than the average Chinese .

在打击了北约的战略盟友土耳其之后,现在轮到印度这个世界上最大的皿煮国家了。特朗普总统目前的关税政策一定有问题。鉴于美国仍然是世界上最主要的经济强国,所以这些贸易逆差的数字并不能说明一切。按人均计算,美国人的平均收入是中国人的4倍。

 

Anonymousyesterday

GO TRUMP!

特朗普加油!

 

Steve23 hours ago

India needs use more then we need them, they need our jobs

印度需要美国,远超过美国需要印度,他们需要我们的工作

 

RANDALL Wyesterday

Sorry India you will have to wait for now. Trump and GOP are at war in America and the rest of the world first.

对不起,印度,你得等一会儿。特朗普和大老党(共和党)在美国和其他地区正打着仗呢。

 

AdChyesterday

Good. thousands of indians have been taking advantage of the H1 visa program which is essentially a multi-billion dollar aid package for indians

很好。成千上万的印度人一直在利用H1签证计划,这实质上是给印度人提供了数十亿美元的援助

 

Mark23 hours ago

Our "great" "president." How can he make the most money pretending to care about the US?

我们的“伟大”“总统”。他怎么能靠假装关心美国大赚特赚呢?

 

Lakyesterday

Finally, US customer will pay.

最后,这一切会由美国的消费者得买单。

 

Anonymous13 hours ago

Thank you Mr Trump for putting America first - -

谢谢,特朗普先生把美国放在第一位了

 

Latayesterday

India has 100% tariff on Harley Davidson imports. Nobody can win India in a trade war!

印度对哈雷戴维森的进口产品征收100%的关税。没有人能在贸易战中赢过印度!

 

michael17 hours ago

What do we get from India. We get heavy thick accented voices over the phone from H-1B visa Indians with a job, professing to get jobs for Americans without jobs. How in hells bells does that work?

我们能从印度得到什么?我们收获的只是拿着H1B签证的印度人找到了工作,在电话里说着带有浓重口音的英语,我们口口声声说要为没有工作的美国人找到工作。通过这种方式能行么?

 

CommonMan15 hours ago

Most of the commodities India exports are available here. Why import these stuff, I don't understand. I suppose, help Indian labor market and financial system.

印度出口的大部分商品这里都能找得到。为什么要进口这些东西?我不明白。我来猜猜,是要帮助印度的劳动力市场和金融系统么?

 

TIGEREYESyesterday

I like the real war Fkk this currency or trade war. let's Bomb each other see who will survive.

我喜欢真正的战争,讨厌这种货币或贸易战争。让我们互相伤害吧,看看谁能活下来。

 

AV8B4ME15 hours ago

Trump understand that fair trade means fair trade...regardless of who you are.

川普明白公平贸易就是公平贸易……不管你是谁。

 

Raymond13 hours ago

Don't worry India. Democracy has not worked for you, Modi is already moving the country toward Trumpian tribal autocracy, making India Hindu Again like making America White Again. Pretty soon you can be just like us.

别担心印度。皿煮根本不适合你们,莫迪已经引领这个国家走上特朗普式的独材之路了,让印度再次成为印度教的天下,就像让美国再次变成白人的天下一样。很快你就能和我们一样了。

 

steveyesterday

trump will leave no stone unturn in dooming america. what a dilemma for democracy loving country who illegally elected president try to turn into Uganda

特朗普会不遗余力地毁灭美国。对于一个热爱皿煮的国家来说,有这样一个非法当上总统,想把美国变成乌干达的领导,是多么进退两难啊

 

George14 hours ago

This guy really made America Great again. No country in the world has even an ounce of respect for us. It just took 500 days to take down, what was built in 50 years.

这个家伙真的让美国再次伟大。世界上没有哪个国家对我们有丝毫的敬意。500天就能摧毁我们在50年内取得的成就。

 

heat13 hours ago

Yet the Russian sanctions are on hold.

俄罗斯的制裁还没处理呢。

 

dimayesterday

send Indian IT mafia ...back home

把印度IT黑手党都遣送回印度吧

 

Robert21 hours ago

Trump is an idiot. Hopefully after the November elections he will be impeached.

特朗普就是个白痴。希望在11月大选后他会被弹劾。

 

Netanyahooo13 hours ago

India should be forced to crack down on SCAM call centers or face deportation of all H1Bs and halt new ones.

应该逼迫印度打击诈骗电话中心,不然就等着面临所有驱逐所有H1B签证持有人,并停发新的H1B签证吧。

 

Abdul9 hours ago

lol ... america is a democracy?? it is more like a brutal summer camp for refugee children

哈哈美国是皿煮国家? ?对于难民儿童来说,美国更像残忍的夏令营。

 

Mozi13 hours ago

lool....so much for the "diplomacy of hugging the men" by darinda modi ....take that indiot!

显得....莫迪给这个男人送上了那么多“外交拥抱”,也不过如此!

 

Government is corruptyesterday

Go get them President Trump! It's about time a President has the balls to go after the countries taking advantage of the USA.

特朗普总统,搞定他们! 现在的总统终于有胆处理那些占美国便宜的国家了。

 

Wasim Farooqui14 hours ago

Good for stupid Indians they supported him and made him their God

这对愚蠢的印度人来说是好事,他们支持他,把他当作他们的上帝

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